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Moreover, the colonization of endophytes has already been recognized in marine algae [22,23] and mosses and ferns [24,25].
Published date: September 03, 2014; Published date: September 29, 2014; Published date: October 06, 2014 Citation: Mishra Y, Singh A, Batra A, Sharma MM (2014) Understanding the Biodiversity and Biological Applications of Endophytic Fungi: A Review. The present review focused on the biodiversity, surface sterilization, histological localization, isolation methods, colonization frequency, natural products that provide immunity to the victims, biological roles of endophytic fungi.Endophytic fungi represent an important and quantified component of fungal biodiversity and are known to affects plant diversity .Approximately, all vascular plant species established to harbor endophytic bacteria and/or fungi [20,21].Class III endophytes are distinguished on the basis of their occurrence and horizontal transmission.This class includes endophytic fungi from vascular, nonvascular plants, woody and herbaceous angiosperms in tropical forest and antarctic communities.The magnitude of fungal diversity estimated about 1.5 million (more accurately 1.62 million) species, later revised by  to 2.27 million.
The figure provided by Hawksworth has been widely accepted by fungal experts (Table 1) . The total biodiversity of fungal endophytes may be classified in to two major categories as Balansiaceous and non- Balansiaceous endophytes.
Endophytes do not cause any symptoms of disease in the host cells and produce natural bioactive compounds considered as an elicitor for plant secondary metabolites production.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Visit for more related articles at Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Endophytic fungi regarded as fascinating group of organisms colonize the living internal tissues of their host usually higher plants.
The endophytes from class I frequently increase plant biomass, confer drought tolerance and produce chemicals that are toxic to animals and decrease herbivory .
Class II endophytes described as mycorrhizal fungus colonized in all parts of the plant including the seed coat and did not form intracellular mycorrhizal structures.
Endophytes have been defined by various scientists as mutualists that colonize aerial parts of living plant tissues and do not cause symptoms of disease.