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African pluvial periods are associated with a "wet Sahara" phase during which larger lakes and more rivers existed.The use of the term has been criticized because it refers to the South only by cartography conventions and projects a connotation of inferiority; a vestige of colonialism, which some say, divided Africa into European terms of homogeneity.
This dispersal of the human species is suggested by linguistic, cultural and genetic evidence.They were tool users rather than tool manufacturers.The next major evolutionary step occurred around 2.3 million BCE, when primitive stone tools were used to scavenge the carcasses of animals killed by other predators, both for their meat and their marrow. habilis was most likely not capable of competing with large predators and was more prey than hunter, although H.Some of the earlier representatives of this species were small-brained and used primitive stone tools, much like H. Potentially the first hominid to engage in hunting, H. They were the first hominids to leave Africa, going on to colonize the entire Old World, and perhaps later on giving rise to Homo floresiensis. georgicus to be an early and primitive member of the H. The fossil record shows Homo sapiens living in southern and eastern Africa anywhere from 100,000 to 150,000 years ago.Between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, their expansion out of Africa launched the colonization of the planet by modern humans.In northern Somalia was Barbara or the Bilad al-Barbar ("Land of the Berbers"), which was inhabited by the Eastern Baribah or Barbaroi, as the ancestors of the Somalis were referred to by medieval Arab and ancient Greek geographers, respectively.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, the populations south of the Sahara were divided into three broad ancestral groups: Hamites and Semites in the Horn of Africa and Sahel related to those in North Africa, who spoke languages belonging to the Afroasiatic family; Negroes in most of the rest of the subcontinent (hence, the former toponym Black Africa for Tropical Africa Climate zones of Africa, showing the ecological break between the hot desert climate of North Africa and the Horn of Africa (red), the hot semi-arid climate of the Sahel and areas surrounding deserts (orange) and the tropical climate of Central and Western Africa (blue).
the Saharan and Sub-Saharan regions of Africa have been separated by the extremely harsh climate of the sparsely populated Sahara, forming an effective barrier interrupted by only the Nile in Sudan, though the Nile was blocked by the river's cataracts.
The Sahara pump theory explains how flora and fauna (including Homo sapiens) left Africa to penetrate the Middle East and beyond.
It contrasts with North Africa, whose territories are part of the League of Arab states within the Arab world.
Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and Mauritania are geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa, but are likewise Arab states and part of the Arab world.
Many new states received legitimacy by claiming descent from the Lunda dynasties.