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The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is investigating the possibility of growing sorgham as a source of fuel, food, and animal feed in arid parts of Asia and Africa.Sweet sorghum has one-third the water requirement of sugarcane over the same time period.
Ethanol, often in high concentrations, is used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications and related compounds.The California Air Resources Board formalized this issue in 2008 by recognizing control standards for formaldehydes as an emissions control group, much like the conventional NOx and Reactive Organic Gases (ROGs).Flex-fuel engines in Brazil are able to work with all ethanol, all gasoline or any mixture of both.Older cars (and vintage cars designed to use a slower burning fuel) should have the engine valves upgraded or replaced.Argonne National Laboratory analyzed greenhouse gas emissions of many different engine and fuel combinations, and found that biodiesel/petrodiesel blend (B20) showed a reduction of 8%, conventional E85 ethanol blend a reduction of 17% and cellulosic ethanol 64%, compared with pure gasoline.The use of “alcohol” for ethanol (in full, “alcohol of wine”) is modern, first recorded 1753, and by the later 17th century referred to “any sublimated substance; distilled spirit” use for “the spirit of wine” (shortened from a full expression alcohol of wine). Ethanol is used in medical wipes and most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels as an antiseptic.
Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses.
It also requires about 22% less water than corn (also known as maize).
The world’s first sweet sorghum ethanol distillery began commercial production in 2007 in Andhra Pradesh, India.
Gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol.
Hydrous ethanol (about 95% ethanol and 5% water) can be used as fuel in more than 90% of new gasoline fueled cars sold in the country.
The largest single use of ethanol is as an engine fuel and fuel additive.