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These same cells also form the inner lining of the ureters, kidneys, and a part of the urethra.

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Bladder cancer is an uncontrolled abnormal growth and multiplication of cells in the urinary bladder, which have broken free from the normal mechanisms that keep uncontrolled cell growth in check.However, as time passes after the quit date, the risk progressively decreases.In view of the above, it is extremely important for patients with bladder cancer to stop smoking completely since the chances of the cancer coming back after treatment are higher in those people who continue to smoke.Invasive bladder cancer (like cancers of other organs) has the ability to spread (metastasize) to other body parts, including the lungs, bones, and liver.Bladder cancer invariably starts from the innermost layer of the bladder (for example, the mucosa) and may invade into the deeper layers as it grows.From time to time, the muscular wall of the bladder contracts to expel urine through the urinary passage (urethra) into the outside world.

The normal volume of the full bladder is about 400 ml-600 ml, or about 2 cups. The innermost layer of the bladder, which comes into contact with the urine stored inside the bladder, is called the "mucosa" and consists of several layers of specialized cells called "transitional cells," which are almost exclusively found in the urinary system of the body.

The middle layer is a thin lining known as the "lamina propria" and forms the boundary between the inner "mucosa" and the outer muscular layer.

This layer has a network of blood vessels and nerves and is an important landmark in terms of the staging of bladder cancer (described in detail below in the bladder cancer staging section).

The type of bladder cancer has implications in selecting the appropriate treatment for the disease.

For example, certain types may not respond to radiation and chemotherapy as well as others.

People who smoke also have a higher risk of many other types of cancer, including acute leukemia and cancers of the lung, lip, mouth, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and pancreas.